A failed attempts on writing Duck TrueMotion S encoder

So, my attempt to write a semi-decent TrueMotion 1 encoder has failed (mostly because I’m too annoyed to continue it). Here I’ll describe how the codec works and what I’ve implemented.

In essence, Horizons Technology PVEZ is a rather simple delta-compression based codec that codes RGB15 (or ARGB20) and RGB24 using prediction from three neighbours and Tunstall codes (I’m aware only of one other codec, CRI P256, that employs it). For convenience there are three possible fixed sets of deltas and three fixed codebooks as well. Videos from (3DO version IIRC) Star Control II: The Ur-Quan Masters used custom codebooks (data for cutscenes was stored in several files and one of them was the codebook specification), and later TM2X allowed using per-frame custom codebooks and deltas but nobody remembers it. The second revision of the codec (do not confuse it with TrueMotion 2 though) introduced inter frames where some of the 2×4 blocks could be marked as skipped.

Initially I had no idea on how to do it properly so I tried brute forcing it by creating a search tree limited to maximum of 256 nodes at each level but as you can expect it took about a minute to encode two frames in VGA resolution. Thus I decided to look at the codebook closer and eventually found out that it’s a prefix one (i.e. for each chain of codes there’s its non-empty prefix in the codebook as well) so I can use greedy approach by simply accumulating codes in a sequence and writing codebook entry ID when the sequence can’t be extended further (or when adding the next code forms a sequence not in the codebook). Which leaves the question of deltas.

There are two kinds of deltas there, both occurring in pairs: C-deltas that update red and blue components (depending on coding parameters there may be 1-4 deltas per 2×4 block of pixels) and Y-deltas that update all pixel components (and for all pixels as well). The problem here was to keep deltas in order so they produce sane pixel values (i.e. without wraparounds) and that’s where I failed. I used the same approach as the decoders and grouped delta pairs into single value. The problem is that I could not keep the result value from causing overflows even if I tried all possible deltas and did not check C-deltas result (as Y-deltas are added immediately after that). And I also made a mistake of using pixel value with its components stored separately (the deltas apparently exploit carries and subtracting with borrows for higher components). I suppose I’d have better luck if I use 32-bit pixel value (converting it to bytes for checking the differences and such) and if I use individual deltas and probably with a trellis search for 4-8 deltas to make sure the result does not deviate much from the original pixel values…—but I was annoyed enough at this point so I simply gave up. And that is before getting to the stage when I have to figure out how to select delta values set (probably just calculate the deltas for the whole frame and see what set fits there the best), what codebook to pick and how to control bitrate (by zeroing small deltas?).

Oh well, I’m sure I’ll find something else to work at.

P.S. I’ve also tried to look at the reference encoder but CODUCK.DLL was not merely a horrible pun but an obfuscated (you were supposed to pay for the encoder and use serial numbers and such after all) 16-bit code that made Ghidra decompiler commit suicide so I gave up on it as well.

P.P.S. I might return to it one day but it seems unlikely as this codec is not that interesting or useful for me.

3 Responses to “A failed attempts on writing Duck TrueMotion S encoder”

  1. Paul says:

    Why give up so soon? It is not that complex after all.
    P.S. no codecs is useful to me, but I still do it for fun and profit.

  2. Kostya says:

    Mostly because it’s annoying so the efforts I spend implementing an encoder for it do not worth the satisfaction I can get from it (even for Indeo 3 it was better).

    Unlike you I do those codecs purely for fun and since this one is not going to bring me any I’d rather do anything else.

  3. […] in February I wrote about my failed attempt to write TrueMotion 1 encoder. And since I was bored and really had nothing better to do, I tried […]

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