Vivo2 revisited

Since I have nothing better to do (after a quick glance at H.264 decoder—yup, nothing) I decided to look at Vivo 2 again to see if I can improve it from being “decoding and somewhat recognizable” to “mostly okay” stage.

To put a long story short, Vivo 2 turned out to be an unholy mix of H.263 and MPEG-4 ASP. On one hoof you have H.263 codec structure, H.263 codebooks and even the unique feature of H.263 called PB-frames. On the other hoof you have coefficient quantisation like in MPEG-4 ASP and coefficient prediction done on unquantised coefficients (H.263 performs DC/AC prediction on already dequantised coefficients while MPEG-4 ASP re-quantises them for the prediction).

And the main weirdness is IDCT. While the older standards give just ideal transform formula, multiplying by matrix is slow and thus most implementations use some (usually fixed-point integer) approximation that also exploits internal symmetry for faster calculation (and hence one of the main problems with various H.263 and DivX-based codecs: if you don’t use the exactly the same transform implementation as the reference you’ll get artefacts because those small differences will accumulate). Actually ITU H.263 Annex W specifies bit-exact transform but nobody cares by this point. And Vivo Video has a different approach altogether: it generates a set of matrices for each coefficient and thus instead of performing IDCT directly it simply sums one or two matrices for each non-zero coefficient (one matrix is for coefficient value modulo 32, another one is for coefficient value which is multiple of 32). Of course it takes account for it being too coarse by multiplying matrices by 64 before converting to integers (and so the resulting block should be scaled down by 64 as well).

In either case it seems to work good enough so I’ve finally enabled nihav-vivo in the list of default crates and can finally forget about it as did the rest of the world.

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