NihAV — Some News

So, despite work, heat, travels, and overall laziness, I’ve managed to complete more or less full-featured Indeo 4 and 5 decoder. That means that my own decoder decodes Indeo 4 and 5 files with all known frame types (including B-frames) and transforms (except DCT because there are no known samples using it) and even transparency!

Here are two random samples from Civilization II and Starship Titanic decoded and dumped as PGM (click for full size):

I’m not going to share the code for transparency plane decoding, it’s very simple (just RLE) and the binary specification is easy to read. The only gotchas are that it’s decoded as contiguous tile aligned to width of 32 (e.g. the first sample has width 332 pixels but the transparency tile is 352 pixels) and the dirty rectangles provided in the band header are just a hint for the end user, not a thing used in decoding.

This decoder was written mostly so that I can understand Indeo better and what can I say about it: Indeo 4/5 is about the same codec with some features fit for more advanced codecs of the later era. While the only things it reuses from the previous frames are pixels and band transform mode, it can reuse decoded quantisers and motion vectors from the first band for chroma bands and luma bands 1-3 in scalability mode too. It has variable block sizes (4×4, 8×8 and 8×8 in 16×16 macroblock) with various selectable transforms and scans (i.e. you can have 2D, row or column Slant, Haar or (theoretically) DCT and scans can be diagonal, horizontal or vertical too). And there were several frame types too: normal I-, P- and B-frames, droppable I- and P-frames, and droppable P-frame sequence (i.e. P-frames that reference the previous frame of such type or normal I/P-frame). Had it had proper stereo support, it’d be still as hot as ITU H.EVC.

The internal design between Indeo 4 and 5 differs in small details, like Indeo 4 having more frame types (like B-frames and droppable I-frames) — but Indeo 5 had introduced droppable P-frame sequence; picture and band headers differ between versions but (macro)block information and actual content decoding is the same (Indeo 5 does a bit trickier stuff with macroblock quantisers but that’s all). Also Indeo 4 had transparency information and different plane reconstruction (using Haar wavelet instead of 5/7 used in Indeo 5). So, in result my decoder was split into several modules reflecting the changes: and for codec-specific functions, for common structures and types (e.g. picture header, frame type and such), for transforms and motion compensation and for the actual decoding functions.

As with Intel H.263 decoder, Indeo 4/5 decoders provide implementations for IndeoXParser that parse picture header, band header and macroblock information and also recombine back plane in case it was coded as scalable. In result they store not so much information, just the codebooks used in decoding and for Indeo5 the common picture information that is stored only for I-frames (in other words, GOP info).

In result, here’s how Indeo 4 main decoding function looks like:

    fn decode(&mut self, pkt: &NAPacket) -> DecoderResult<NAFrameRef> {
        let src = pkt.get_buffer();
        let mut br = BitReader::new(src.as_slice(), src.len(), BitReaderMode::LE);

        let mut ip = Indeo4Parser::new();
        let bufinfo = self.dec.decode_frame(&mut ip, &mut br)?;
        let mut frm = NAFrame::new_from_pkt(pkt,, bufinfo);

with the actual interface for parser being

pub trait IndeoXParser {
    fn decode_picture_header(&mut self, br: &mut BitReader) -> DecoderResult<PictureHeader>;
    fn decode_band_header(&mut self, br: &mut BitReader, pic_hdr: &PictureHeader, plane: usize, band: usize) -> DecoderResult<BandHeader>;
    fn decode_mb_info(&mut self, br: &mut BitReader, pic_hdr: &PictureHeader, band_hdr: &BandHeader, tile: &mut IVITile, ref_tile: Option<Ref<IVITile>>, mv_scale: u8) -> DecoderResult<()>;
    fn recombine_plane(&mut self, src: &[i16], sstride: usize, dst: &mut [u8], dstride: usize, w: usize, h: usize);

And the nano-benchmarks:
the longest Indeo4 file I have around (00186002.avi) — nihav-tool 20sec, avconv 9sec plus lots of error messages;
Mask of Eternity opening (Indeo 5) — nihav-tool 8.1sec, avconv 4.1sec.
Return to Krondor intro (Indeo 5) — nihav-tool 5.8sec, avconv 2.9sec.
For other files it’s also consistently about two times slower but whatever, I was not trying to make it fast, I tried to make it work.

The next post should be either about the things that irritate me in Rust and make it not so good for codec implementing or about cooking.

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